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感统训练(转至韦钰院士的博客)  

2012-04-07 13:21:56|  分类: Educational psyc |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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对绝大多数的儿童,感觉统合是一个发展过程,如果不是作为治病而要求专业医生予以治疗,而是为了一般的促进儿童的发展,下面的简单的鉴别方法和训练方法可以供父母在日常的养育过程中参考。   行为主要是指在外界环境刺激下姿态和精细鉴别力的发展情况。一般也反映在和人以及非人世界交往时探索、投入、参与和自信这些内部的动力上。因此是否超常儿童具有比较清晰的过度反应时需要治疗吗?没有明确的结论。家长首先回答这样一个问题,你的孩子对刺激的反应是否构成在完成正常学习和生活功能时的障碍,如果没有,,可以阅读一些合适的资料,引导你的孩子自己去克服一些过度反应。用下面的方法来进行自我教育,而不必去求助于专业的心理医生 (Therapy Works, 2000)
Sensory History Interview
When possible interview both the child and a parent. You may change the phrasing and offer examples to clarify items. Record any discussion under "remarks."

  

No Sometimes Always or a lot Remarks
  Touch        
1. Do you like messy art projects, like finger paints or clay?        
2. Do you avoid getting your hands “messy”?        
3. When you were little did it bother you to have someone wash your face?        
4. Do you feel like you need to wash your hands often?        
5. Does it bother you to have someone else wash or comb your hair?        
6. Do baths bother you?        
7. Do some clothes bother you because of the way they feel?        
8. Do the tags in clothes bother you?        
9. Do you mind wearing insect repellant or sunscreen?        
10. Do you prefer long sleeve clothing even when it’s warm?        
11. Does it bother you when people touch you, even if it is a friendly pat or hug?        
12. Does going to the dentist bother you?        
13. Does it bother you to go barefoot outside?        
14. After someone touches you, do you feel like touching or rubbing that spot?        
15. Are there foods you avoid because of the way they feel in your mouth?        
  Movement        
16. Do you like carnival rides that lift you off the ground?        
17. Do you like playing on a trampoline?        
18. Do you get scared in high places?        
19. Do you avoid games that include climbing and jumping?        
20. Do you like moving fast, like you do on a skateboard or skating?        
21. Do you like rides or swings that spin you?        
22. Do you have trouble sitting still?        
23. Do you get carsick easily?        
24. Do you like riding on busses?        
25. When you are playing, do you fall more than your friends?        
26. Do you like to practice new things privately?        
27. At school do you often lean or lay on your desk?        
28. Do you get tired more easily than other kids?        
29. When you were little did you walk on your toes a lot?        
28. After spinning or jumping, do you find it hard to settle down?        
  Sound        
29. Are you too distracted to work if there is a lot a noise around?        
30. Do you think you startle or get more upset at loud noises more than other people?        
31. Do you get confused or distracted in noisy places like the mall or the school cafeteria?        
32. Do you enjoy music while you work?        
33. Does making little noises, like tapping a pencil help you to focus?        
34. Do you often get accused of not paying attention?        
  Vision        
35. Does bright sunlight hurt you eyes?        
36. Do your eyes seem to get tired or water easily?        
37. Do you prefer dimly lit rooms?        
38. Do you put puzzles together easily?        
39. Do you like toys like lava lights to look at?        
40. Do you get lost easily?        
41. Do you dislike drawing or writing?        
42. Is your writing very large compared to your friends?        


Comments: 
Sensory Diet
Sensory diets are planned, scheduled activities imbedded throughout the day to help these individuals achieve or maintain an optimal arousal level. A sensory diet should include the input and support of parents, teachers, and any other involved adult. 
Developing a Sensory Diet
A sensory diet requires the family to document the daily routine for 4-6 days, with notations for particular problem times. It also requires the occupational therapist to observe the child in natural settings, including home, school, and daycare. In some cases, these observations may be supplemented by videotapes of the child. 
Typically, with a pre-school child you would work within the regular activity routine to assure a sensory activity at least every half-hour. If the regular activity has a sensory basis an additional activity need not be included. With older children you schedule the activities based on need and on logical breaks in their day. Many older children can learn to manage their own sensory diet. 
Considerations in Planning a Sensory Diet
An occupational therapist should work with you to tailor the sensory diet to your child's needs. 
A sensory diet should include alerting activities, organizing activities, and calming activities based on the performance of the child. This includes interventions for specific problem areas, using "calming activities" during stress periods and "alerting" activities during slow periods. 
Guidelines:
1. Routines are important so start simple and work up. An example might be after breakfast, after lunch, after school, before bedtime, or every 2 hours. 
2. Use an activity that the child has an interest in, this will stop an opening confrontation. 
3. When the transition is made between activities and during an activity. Try counting to 5 before making a transition. 
4. Watch for signs of child starting to relax by facial expressions, these mean the child is involved in an activity that is working at that time. Crying, whimpering, and laughing can mean it is time to cool off or calm down. 
5. Change the routine occasionally for variety. This will help to keep the sensory diet interesting. This also helps with the ability of change in their environment 
6. Talk with your occupational therapist regularly to make sure the diet that you are using is age appropriate and is still fitting your child's sensory needs. 
Sensory Activities
Sensory diet activities are usually quite simple. The following lists offer a few examples of activities that may be done at home.... 
Games (alerting activities)


 Obstacle Courses including dragging/sliding things
Silly Walks (e.g., crab walk)
Red Light/Green Light
Running Races
Tug-of-war
"Stop Dancing" where you freeze and hold you body posture at breaks in the music
Swinging/Bouncing (alerting activities)
 Inside swings
 Trampoline
 Hanging or pull-up-bar
 Outside swings/hammocks
 Exercise ball
 Jump Rope
 Stilts/Roller Skates
Exercises (organizing activities)
Climbing
Tumbling/Head Stands
Wheelbarrow/Camel Play: Have the child carry loads on the back like a camel.
Pushing a loaded box/wagon/cart
unning/jogging/biking/Stair Climbing
Horsie and Leapfrog: These are great contact sports. Leapfrog is where one person jumps over the other. Next the other person does the same
Roughhousing: This can be a good all over sensory experience especially if you push, pull, tug, roll, and tumble. Make sure to use proper safety precautions.
Other Sensory Stimulation (organizing activities)
**If a child is sensitive to touch they should not be forced to do texture activities
Dumping and Pouring: Give the child a cup and bucket. Put blocks, dry beans, sand or water in the item. Then have the child dump the material back and forth from one to the other.
Paper Ripping: Let the child have some type of paper material. Allow them to tear strips, squares, or circles from the paper.
Music listening/dancing/singing
Pushing and pulling activities: playing with a "stretch " toy or stiff clay
Finger painting with plain paint first then adding in; sand, cereal, rice, or other textures.
Cooking Play: When you are cooking let the child play in the cookie dough, bread dough, etc.
Dress-up: Collect a box of dress-up items for the child to use. Items can include hats, gloves or mittens, scarves of different materials, etc.
Calming Activities
Cuddling with pillows in a "hideout"
Making a "kid burrito" by rolling the child up tightly in a blanket, or a "kid sandwich" by (carefully) squishing the child between two gymnastic mats or sofa cushions.
Deep pressure massages, back/neck rubs, cuddles or hugs
"Heavy work," such as moving furniture, carrying heavy bags, or lifting weights.
Hideaway: Use towels, sheets, blankets, and other materials for placing over a table or two chairs put together to make a fort for the child to play in.
Quiet music listening, books on tape
Warm bath or shower
Pushing on walls with, back, buttocks, hands, head, or shoulders.
Sucking on something... it can be ice water from a squeeze bottle, a Popsicle, or anything else the child enjoys
 

摘自《Asynchronous development and sensory integration intervention in the gifted and talented population,Anne Cronin (Reprinted with permission from the Davidson Institute for Talent Development. http://www.ditd.org)》 (没有原作者的同意,请不要用于商业目的)
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